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CRJ245 Criminology

Citation guides

In-text citations

In-text citations, or parenthetical citations, must be included in the main text of your paper. Insert a citation immediately after any information you take from another source.


APA in-text citations require the author's last name and the year of publication. The page number is also required for direct quotes.




Elizabeth I was also known by the nickname Gloriana (Letellier, 2009).

Elizabeth "was the kind of person who translated Italian poetry into Latin – for fun" (Letellier, 2009, p. 17).

Letellier (2009) discusses Elizabeth I as his own rolemodel.

Letellier (2009) deems Elizabeth "undeniably a nerd's diva" (p. 16).


For more information, see the Excelsior OWL's section on APA in-text citations.

Formatting Citations

Citation generators

This shows how to get citations out of selected databases.